Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from different municipal solid waste treatment methods - Case study in Ha Noi, Vietnam

Thi Mai Thao Pham

Faculty of Environment, Ha Noi University of Natural Resources and Environment

Received 3 April  2019; accepted 12 July 2019



This study focuses on defining the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Ha Noi city. Firstly, the MSW samplings at Nam Son and Xuan Son landfills were collected to identify the components. Based on the statistical data on the amount and ratio of MSW collected, the volume of MSW treated by different technologies was estimated. Then, the GHG emissions were quantified by applying the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 model. The annual GHG released from MSW in Ha Noi in 2017 was 1.1 million tons of CO2e from landfilling, 16.3 thousand tons of CO2e from incineration, and 76,100 tons of CO2e from composting. The GHG emission level from landfills is the highest (327 kg of CO2e per ton of treated waste), followed by composting (189 kg of CO2e per ton), and incineration (115 kg of CO2e per ton). The GHG emissions from landfills comprised nearly 90% of GHG emissions from MSW disposal in Ha Noi. The results also revealed that if there are no measures to recover landfill gas for energy generation, the GHG generated from MSW treatment facilities will also contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect and climate change impact. These research results also supply the basis information for decision-makers to select the appropriate MSW treatment technologies for Ha Noi in the context of increasing population pressure and environmental pollution.

Keywords: composting, greenhouse gas (GHG), incineration, landfill, MSW.