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Rice is the most important crop of Vietnam with a harvested area of 7,835 ha, production of 45.2 million tons of paddies, and export volume of 6,997 thousand tons of milled rice for an export value of USD 2,852 million in 2015. However, if purely considering its economic aspects, rice contributes only 5.45% of national GDP1 and rice farmer's net income is only USD 419/ha compared to USD 1,128/ha earnings of Thailand farmers. Moreover, it is projected that up to 16.8% of the Red River Delta and 38.9% of the Mekong River Delta will be submerged after sea level rises by 100 cm. If this happens, a reduction in rice production would be more than 30-35%, based on the 2016 climate change scenarios. Therefore, it is necessary to thoughtfully consider rice production and rice export through different perspectives including economic, societal and environmental with a focus on ensuring food security and social stability.